Research Library

Assess Me Now!
Research Library Page

Research Library


This scientific research is for informational use only.

The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals.

Paquet provides this information as a service. This information should not be read to recommend or endorse any specific products.



Paquet’s Liquid Calcium with Vitamin D3 helps to improve your bone strength by improving the absorption of Calcium and Vitamin D3.

  • Calcium is an essential nutrient that is involved in most metabolic processes and the phosphate salts of which provide mechanical rigidity to the bones and teeth, where 99% of the body's calcium resides
  • Vitamin D, a group of hormones rather than vitamins, is majorly synthesized in the skin during exposure to UV B and less absorbed from the diet. It enhances intestinal calcium absorption and helps maintain calcium homeostasis between the blood and bones

Humans’ bone mass increases till we are in our 20s, following which bone pass will slowly decline. For women, this decline is accelerated after menopause. Scientific studies have shown that taking them together may improve bone health, helping to maintain bone mass density.


Areas Of Scientific Research


In humans, osteoporosis is a common feature of aging [1]. Loss of bone starts in women at the time of the menopause and in men at about age 55 and leads to an increase in fracture rates in both sexes. Individual fracture risk is inversely related to bone density, which in turn is determined by the density achieved at maturity (peak bone density) and the subsequent rate of bone loss

Calcium intake influences skeletal calcium retention during growth and thus affects peak bone mass achieved in early adulthood [2]. Increased calcium intake is associated with increased bone mineral accretion rate up to a threshold level. Calcium also plays a role in preventing bone loss and osteoporotic fractures in later life. Meta-analyses report that calcium supplementation reduces bone loss by 0.5-1.2% and the risk of fracture of all types by at least 10% in older people.


In humans, bone mass increases during childhood and adolescence, and from birth until the age of about 20 years. Acquisition rates are highest in infancy and during the pubertal growth spurt and are lower during the other periods of childhood. Linear growth stops at the end of puberty, but bone mass continues to increase for some time afterward, reaching a peak during young adulthood. The age at which peak bone mass is achieved varies between different regions of the body and different populations. After peak bone mass has been achieved there is a slow decline in bone mass. This decline is accelerated in women following the menopause. The rates of post-menopausal bone mineral loss average 1—2 %/year in cortical bone and 2—3 %/year in cancellous bone (Prentice al. 2003) [3].

Nutritionally, therefore, adequate Ca intake is critical to the achievement of optimal peak bone mass and modifies the rate of bone loss associated with aging.


In later years inadequate dietary Ca accelerates bone loss and may contribute to osteoporosis. Ca supplementation of the usual diet in postmenopausal women and older men have been shown [4] to reduce the rate of loss of bone mineral density at a number of sites over periods of 12 years. However, the extent to which increasing Ca intake reduces fracture risk needs to be determined in studies of adequate size with bone fracture as an outcome.

There is good evidence to indicate that a marked reduction in fracture risk can be achieved in the elderly using combined Ca and vitamin D therapy. Evidence supports [5] the use of calcium, or calcium in combination with vitamin D supplementation, in the preventive treatment of osteoporosis in people aged 50 years or older. For the best therapeutic effect, the study recommends minimum doses of 1200 mg of calcium, and 800 IU of vitamin D (for combined calcium plus vitamin D supplementation).

Overall, the results suggest [6] that increasing calcium intake, whether from dietary sources or by taking calcium supplements, provides a small nonprogressive increase in BMD, without any ongoing reduction in rates of BMD loss beyond one year.


This 2008 study [7] provides clear evidence that calcium supplements have a beneficial effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in men. The study size, high subject retention, and consistency across BMD measurement sites mean that the current findings are most unlikely to be subject to bias or significant experimental error. A daily dosage of 1.2 g of elemental calcium is required to achieve this effect.


Though based primarily on a subset analysis, [8] long-term use of calcium and vitamin D appears to confer a reduction that may be substantial in the risk of hip fracture among postmenopausal women. The strongest evidence for benefit is for hip fracture where calcium and vitamin D supplementation yielded a noteworthy reduction after 5 years of treatment among women not taking personal supplements.

This study [9] confirms the beneficial effects of calcium supplementation on bone density in healthy older women. It shows that these benefits are present throughout the skeleton, that they are independent of age, and that they are present in individuals with both high and low dietary calcium intakes.

  • Although most of the beneficial effect of calcium on bone density in the spine and total body scans occur in the first 30 months in the intention-to-treat analysis, there are cumulative benefits evident in the proximal femur. The use of calcium supplementation over longer periods is likely to result in even greater effects on bone density.


Beyond the role of calcium and vitamin D supplements in maintaining bone health, emerging evidence [10] suggests that calcium with or without vitamin D supplementation might have potential adverse effects in the general population, such as cardiovascular events.

The data from this 2008 study [11] showed significant increases in the rates of adjudicated vascular events reported by the women allocated to calcium supplementation. This effect was more noticeable in those with high compliance with the study drug and seems to be progressive during the 30 to 60 months of the study.

In this pooled analysis [12] of around 12 000 participants from 11 randomized controlled trials, calcium supplements were associated with about a 30% increase in the incidence of myocardial infarction and smaller, non-significant, increases in the risk of stroke and mortality. The findings were consistent across trials, with an increased relative risk of myocardial infarction with calcium observed in six of the seven trials in which at least one event occurred, although no individual trial reported a statistically significant effect. The risk of myocardial infarction with calcium tended to be greater in those with dietary calcium intake above the median but was independent of age, sex, and type of supplement.

Too much calcium supplements may increase fracture risk. Calcium carbonate or calcium citrate supplements can reduce phosphate absorption [13], which may be detrimental because a balanced ratio of calcium to phosphate is needed for bone mineralization. This change could augment bone resorption and thus increase fracture risk.