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SUGAR BALANCE RESEARCH

This scientific research is for informational use only.

The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals.

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INTRODUCTION

Diabetes mellitus (DM), is a heterogeneous metabolic disorder [1] in which there is a defect in insulin action and secretion and/or insulin resistance where there is improper insulin response of the body to manage dietary glucose result in hyperglycemia [2,3].

  • Postprandial hyperglycemia found to be a major risk factor for micro- and macro-vascular complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy associated with diabetes [4,5], since the acute glucose fluctuations during the postprandial period have a considerable effect in the progression of oxidative damage that implicated in the development diabetic vascular complications.
  • Therefore, effective controlling of blood glucose is one of the major goals for DM treatment to reduce the incidence of chronic vascular complications [6], accordingly, the recommended therapy in Type 2 diabetes should be directed to control the acute glucose oscillation in addition to mean blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c [7,8].

Much research [9] has been focused on the control of postprandial glucose by the inhibition of pancreatic-amylase and the intestinal-glucosidases, the key enzymes of dietary carbohydrate digestion [10].

  • The slowing carbohydrate digestion and/or absorption is the most probable mechanisms underlying potential the attenuated postprandial hyperglycemia, as this condition is associated with the prevention of impaired glucose tolerance (pre-diabetes) and a significant reduction in risk of developing type 2 diabetes [11,12].

The seeds of fenugreek [13] (Trigonella foenum-graecum) are used as a food supplement and also have a long history of medicinal use for labor induction, helping digestion and improving metabolism and health [14].

Areas Of Scientific Research

CHROMIUM - SUGAR LEVEL

While the causes of these diseases are multifactorial, one nutrient that is associated with all of these abnormalities is Chromium (Cr). In the presence of Cr [15], in a biologically active form, much lower levels of insulin are required. Modern diets, which are often high in refined carbohydrates, are not only low in Cr, but lead to enhanced Cr losses.

These data demonstrate the beneficial effect of chromium supplementation [16,17] on glycaemic control and lipid variables in subjects with newly onset type2 diabetes.

  • Although clinical trials [18,19] have not shown conclusive evidence for its beneficial effect in the human subject, chromium improved insulin sensitivity and glucose handling in a number of animal models of type-2 diabetes
  • Chromium supplementation does not appear to ameliorate insulin resistance or impaired glucose metabolism in patients at risk for type 2 diabetes and thus is unlikely to attenuate diabetes risk.
  • The molecular mechanisms by which chromium mediates its beneficial effects are unclear
  • Epidemiologic studies suggest that tissue levels of chromium are reduced among diabetic individuals, especially in those with existing CVD, compared with healthy control subjects.

Insulin resistance, defined as impaired responsiveness of the body to insulin [20], is a prediabetic stage in the transition from obesity to full-blown type 2 diabetes [21]. Despite the controversies surrounding the clinical benefits of chromium in type2 diabetes, it has gained popularity in the treatment of type 2 diabetes over the years.

FENUGREEK - SUGAR LEVEL

There is good scientific evidence [22,23,24,25,26,27,28] (Level B2) suggesting that fenugreek is effective in reducing blood glucose levels in diabetic patients but not effective in lowering blood glucose in healthy, obese or overweight subjects.

Despite the difference in hypoglycemic effect and the exact mechanism of action [32], T. foenum-graecum seeds extracts can be considered as an effective alternative in diabetes. The toxicity test result of this plant emphasized to consider it as an alternative to diabetic treatment with no or little side-effect. However, large scale and multicentric clinical trials are still required to establish the usefulness of this indigenous drug.

An effective strategy to restrict global impacts [33] of T2DM is by limiting the number of prediabetics [34]. It’s our focus to identify new effective therapeutic agents, with relatively low cost and low toxicity that can be used regularly to control a progression of T2DM in the prediabetic population.

  • Therefore, this indicates that progression to diabetes from prediabetes stage is subsided by the consumption of Fenugreek as the conventional conversion rate of diabetes is lowered from 55 to 23 % at the end of 3 years due to Fenugreek. This study provides evidence for the use of Fenugreek to delay the onset of diabetes in subjects with prediabetes. Fenugreek powder is useful to lower the blood glucose in prediabetes.

GYMNEMIC ACIDS - SUGAR LEVEL

There are some possible mechanisms [35] by which the leaves and especially Gymnemic acids from G. sylvestre exert its hypoglycemic effects are: 1) it increases secretion of insulin, 2) it promotes regeneration of islet cells, 3) it increases utilization of glucose

  • One of the mechanisms responsible for adult onset diabetes mellitus is a form of insulin resistance, which is attributed to the inability of insulin to enter cells via the insulin receptor. Gymnema may overcome this resistance, but require further studies to confirm its validity and also whether the effect is clinically relevant.

It also exerts a similar effect [35,36,37] by delaying the glucose absorption in the blood. The atomic arrangements of gymnemic acids to the taste buds are similar to sugar molecules which fill the receptors in the taste buds preventing its activation by the sugar molecule in the food.

  • Similarly, in the intestine it attaches to the receptor present in the external layer of the intestine, thereby preventing the absorption of sugar molecules by the intestine, leading to a reduction in blood sugar levels [38].

The ability of G. sylvestre to lower blood glucose concentrations has been tested as a hypoglycemic agent in combination with insulin in humans [39] and in animal studies [40], with encouraging results.

CONCLUSION

However, given the limited quality [41,42] of the included trials and potential for publication bias, a larger - double-blind randomized trial should be conducted according to rigorous standards for herbal interventions with an appropriate randomization procedure, an adequate method of allocation concealment and transparent reporting of these methods.


REFERENCES

[1]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4576795/

[2]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19875556

[3]www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16232315

[4]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8964195

[5]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8960845

[6]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16920301

[7]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16627379

[8]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15867266

[9]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3466453/

[10]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20600532

[11]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15505121

[12]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15650566

[13]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3638592/

[14]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12611558

[15]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19087394

[16]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21570271

[17]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15296075

[18]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3308119/

[19]https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/27/11/2741

[20]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3308119/

[21]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18200017

[22]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3638592/

[23]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11868855

[24]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4591578/

[25]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19839001

[26]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2194788

[27]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5061863/

[28]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3901758/

[29]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3286242

[30]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3626401/#S3title

[31]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3638592/

[32]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2816457/

[33]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4591578/

[34]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12610059

[35]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2170951/#__sec5title

[36]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3912882/#sec6title

[37]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4824685/

[38]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8728717

[39]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4824685/

[40]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3283954

[41]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3901758/